The scalp is the area extending from supraorbital margins in the front to external occipital protuberance and nuchal lines at the back and to the temporal area on either side. This is made up of five layers and is richly supplied by the blood vessels and nerves. Scalp protects the brain from major injuries and acts as a cranium. The five layers are –
- Connective tissue
- Apo neurosis
- Loose areolar tissue
The scalp is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves and richly supplied by the blood vessels. It is supplied by ten nerves –
- Supratrochlear and supraorbital nerves are the branches of the trigeminal nerve, which gives the ophthalmic branch. These nerves supply the frontal area of the scalp.
- Zygomatic temporal nerve, which is the branch of maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve. It supplies the temporal region.
- The auricular temporal nerve which is the branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
- The temporal branch of the facial nerve. You should check the homepage where you will get important details about it.
Out of all these five nerves, four are purely sensory, which carries the sensation from the scalp to the brain, and the temporal branch of the facial nerve is the motor that brings the information from the brain to the scalp.
Post auricular nerve (5 nerves supply this region behind the ear)
- Greater auricular nerve – C 2, 3.
- Lesser occipital nerve C 2 supplies behind the ear.
- Greater occipital nerveC 2 supplies posteriorly upto the vertex.
- Third occipital nerve C3
Additionally, all these four nerves are sensory in nature and carry the sensation from the scalp to the brain. The posterior auricular nerve is the branch of the seventh cranial nerve- the facial nerve. This nerve is purely motor and brings the sensation from the brain to the scalp. Any nerve which may get damaged due to an injury can lead to serious complications.